ERIC Number: ED353498
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1992-Aug-17
Reference Count: N/A
Exercise and Fitness: Association with Cigarette and Smokeless Tobacco Use.
Conway, Terry L.; Cronan, Terry A.
This study examined the relationships among physical fitness, exercise activity, and both cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among 2,800 United States Navy men. Subgrouping individuals according to their self-reported use of tobacco resulted in maximum sample sizes of 1,406 nonusers, 161 smokeless tobacco users, and 1,233 cigarette smokers, although these numbers were reduced to 975 smokers, 115 smokeless tobacco users, and 825 cigarette smokers in some analyses due to random missing data in the physical fitness measures. Smoking was negatively related to exercise activity. After controlling for exercise effects, smoking still was associated with lower physical endurance, both cardiorespiratory (1.5-mile run) and muscular (sit-ups and push-ups). Smoking was not associated with overall body strength or percent body fat after controlling for exercise activity. In striking contrast, smokeless tobacco use was not significantly correlated with exercise levels or with any of the physical fitness measures after controlling for exercise activity. The lack of significant findings with smokeless tobacco use has important implications for educating young men who may falsely believe that they can use smokeless tobacco without ill consequences to their overall health. (Author/NB)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A