ERIC Number: ED353398
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1991
Reference Count: N/A
National Council on Vocational Education, Washington, DC.
Using cognitive science as a lens, this report identifies serious problems with most learning situations, maps the design principles for more effective learning, and shows how these principles relate to four policies and programs: integrating academic and vocational education, work-based apprenticeship, tech prep and 2+2, and cooperative education. Following an executive summary, Chapter 1 notes problems in existing education and training systems. Chapter 2 discusses the following assumptions about learning that are believed to be incorrect: (1) people predictably transfer learning; (2) learners are best seen as passive vessels into which knowledge is poured; (3) learning is the strengthening of bonds between stimuli and correct responses; (4) learners are blank slates on which knowledge is inscribed; and (5) to be transferable to new situations, skills and knowledge should be acquired independent of their contexts of use. Chapter 3 addresses 19th-century educational ideas, the child as spectacular learner, and traditional apprenticeship learning. Chapter 4 looks at cognitive apprenticeship models, defining characteristics of cognitive apprenticeship, examples of cognitive apprenticeship, and learning environments. Chapter 5 discusses integration of academic and vocational education, work-based learning, tech prep, cooperative education, and the effectiveness of cognitive apprenticeship. A calendar of National Council on Vocational Education meetings and activities, a list of council members, and 46 references conclude the document. (CML)
Publication Type: Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: National Council on Vocational Education, Washington, DC.