ERIC Number: ED353295
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1992
Reference Count: N/A
Using Intellectual Standards To Assess Student Reasoning.
Paul, Richard; Nosich, Gerald M.
This document provides specific examples of what is involved in applying intellectual criteria and standards to students' reasoning, focusing on elements of reasoning (EORs). The significance of reasoning having elements and the need for standards in assessing reasoning are described. The following are the EORs: (1) purpose, goal, or end in view (all reasoning has a purpose); (2) question at issue or problem to be solved (all reasoning is an attempt to figure something out, settle some question, or solve some problem); (3) point of view or frame of reference (all reasoning is done from some viewpoint); (4) the empirical dimension of reasoning (all reasoning is based on data, information, and/or evidence); (5) the conceptual dimension of reasoning (all reasoning is expressed through and shaped by concepts and ideas); (6) assumptions (all reasoning is based on assumptions); (7) implications and consequences (all reasoning leads somewhere and has implications and consequences); and (8) inferences (all reasoning contains inferences by which conclusions are drawn and meaning is given to data). The interface between EORs and standards is considered. Eight three-columned charts, one for each of the EORs, briefly characterize differences between how good and bad reasoners handle components of their reasoning. The charts provide samples of feedback that teachers might give to students about each component of students' performance as reasoners. (RLC)
Descriptors: Academic Standards, Charts, Cognitive Measurement, Critical Thinking, Educational Assessment, Elementary Secondary Education, Evaluation Criteria, Intelligence, Problem Solving, Student Evaluation, Teacher Role, Thinking Skills
Foundation for Critical Thinking, 4655 Sonoma Mountain Road, Santa Rosa, CA 95404 (free).
Publication Type: Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: N/A
Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
Authoring Institution: N/A