ERIC Number: ED353067
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1992-Nov-12
Pestalozzi: Foster Father of Early Childhood Education.
Hewes, Dorothy W.
In tracing the spread of the educational philosophy of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, it is useful to understand educators' emphasis on an internal or external locus of control. Pestalozzi was an individual with an internal locus of control, and this trait was reflected in his educational philosophy of self-learning and free investigation. However, educators who used Pestalozzi's system of education were individuals with both types of locus of control. Thus, although some systems based on Pestalozzi's ideas, such as Robert Owen's Utopian society, stressed internal control, most 19th century schools in the United States stressed external control and were authoritarian in their approach. In the middle of the 19th century, Friedrich Froebel's concept of the kindergarten, which incorporated ideas of Pestalozzi, was introduced from Germany into the United States, where Elizabeth Peabody adapted it into a teacher-directed system stressing external control. In contrast to Peabody and her followers, other educators brought to the American kindergarten movement a more authentic form of Pestalozzi's ideas that stressed internal control. By the end of the century, kindergarten advocates had been divided into groups with differing philosophies and kindergarten had lost its identification with Froebelian ideas. The methods of Pestalozzi and Froebel did not die out, however. They were incorporated into the Child Study Movement and the Progressive Education practices of John Dewey, and underlie current emphases on developmentally appropriate practice. (MM)
Publication Type: Historical Materials; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A