ERIC Number: ED352510
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1992-Dec
Learner Outcomes: Past, Present, and Future.
Pearce, Kathryn; And Others
Words such as aims, goals, objectives, requirements, and outcomes have been used to define the role of education. As evident in the work of Dewey (1916), Walker and Soltis (1986), Sizer (1984), Goodlad (1984), Boyer (1983), Mager (1970), and Spady (1989), these terms are fuzzy and ill-defined. Throughout history, educators have identified various goals for education: prepare students for life, prepare an elite group of students for entry into higher education, prepare youth for social change, and ensure national purpose. As a result of the National Commission on Excellence in Education report, "A Nation at Risk" (1983), most educators are taking a closer look at the goals of the education system. Sizer suggests two separate purposes: education of the intellect and education in character. Goodlad divides goals into academic, vocational, social and civic, and personal. Walker and Soltis identify three basic educational aims: cultivate knowledge, sustain and improve society, and foster individuals' well-being. Developers of aims for education should keep in mind Honig's (1988) observation that consideration of the three identities of each individual--worker, citizen, and private person--points the way to what school should accomplish and Barth's (1990) strong recommendation that each teacher and principal develop a unique personal vision. Because of a conflict between the rational scientific method and political method currently used, Walker and Soltis (1986) recommend participative social planning for development of goals. (Contains 20 references.) (YLB)
Descriptors: Decision Making, Educational Change, Educational Development, Educational Objectives, Educational Principles, Educational Quality, Educational Research, High Schools, Integrated Curriculum, Literature Reviews, Outcomes of Education, Relevance (Education), Role of Education, School Role, Student Educational Objectives, Vocational Education
Publication Type: Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Vocational and Adult Education (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: National Center for Research in Vocational Education, Berkeley, CA.
Note: In "New Designs for the Comprehensive High School. Volume II--Working Papers"; see CE 062 664.