ERIC Number: ED352328
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1988
Integrating Thinking Skills into the Schools. Resource Publication, Series 1 No. 3.
Thinking skills instruction involves both the mastery of skills and the development of dispositions, habits of thought, and interpersonal behavior. Schools incorporate thinking skills programs into their programs to achieve two basic goals. The first goal is the development of autonomous thinkers. The liberal tradition in American education takes this as fundamental, and with such a goal in mind students are given the instruments needed to generate and evaluate ideas. Within this context, instruction focuses on education for citizenship, decision making, and lifelong learning. The second goal is to strengthen educational programs. Such programs focus on enrichment, remediation, and metacognition. Thinking skills programs are either presented as a separate course or unit of instruction, or they are infused into the standard school curriculum. Teaching for thinking requires teachers to adopt certain pedagogical practices and to master essential concepts and skills, including open-mindedness, flexibility, a commitment to objective standards for evaluation, and skill in managing discussions. Teaching for thinking involves helping students to develop logical principles of thought and to be aware of the underlying abstractions that are implicit in the concrete discussion at hand, and to utilize them throughout their learning. In contrast to traditional teaching objectives, teaching for thinking involves an emphasis on divergent rather than convergent thinking, spiral as opposed to linear thinking, reasoned judgment rather than fact and opinion, and equality between teacher and student. References are included. (IAH)
Publication Type: Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Montclair State Coll., Upper Montclair, NJ. Inst. for Critical Thinking.
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A
Note: For other documents in this series, see SP 034 129-138.