ERIC Number: ED351757
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1992-Oct
Reference Count: N/A
School Change Models and Processes: A Review and Synthesis of Research and Practice. Draft.
Sashkin, Marshall; Egermeier, John
Broad patterns in the last 30 years of research on educational change are traced in this synthesis paper. The three dominant perspectives are: (1) the rational-scientific perspective that posits that change is created by the dissemination of innovative techniques; (2) the political perspective (the "top-down" approach) that generates change through legislation and other external directives; and (3) the cultural perspective (the "bottom-up" approach) that seeks to influence change by encouraging value changes within organizations. Change strategies vary in their aims, which include fixing the parts (curricula and teaching methods), the people, the schools, or the system. A fourth perspective on educational change called "comprehensive restructuring" is presented, which is a cultural-change-based approach that incorporates elements of both political action and scientific-technical innovation, drawing in aspects of all three perspectives. It is argued that this approach holds the most promise for successful systemic change that characterizes the third wave of educational reform. An extensive reference bibliography, examples of each of the four change strategies, and 21 additional resources are included. (Contains 44 references.) (LMI)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. Programs for the Improvement of Practice.
Note: For earlier draft, see ED 348 758.