ERIC Number: ED351645
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1992-Aug-15
Organizational Leaders and Managers: Historical and Emerging Perspectives.
Howard, Ann; Bray, Douglas W.
This paper examines 100 years of study of managers and leaders. The paper is divided into five distinct eras, with a color scheme providing a metaphor for each period. The five periods and their dates are: (1) Management Foundations, 1886-1916, when the first call was issued for a systematic study of management; (2) Rollercoaster Economy, 1917-1945, in which the economy went from boom to bust; (3) Bureaucracy, 1946-1961, the second world war made the world safe for bureaucracy; (4) Challenges to Authority, 1962-1979, in which there were numerous challenges to authority through, for example, the hippie counterculture and the civil rights movement; (5) Global Economy, 1980-present, which recognizes that the manager's job has changed to compete in the global economy. For each of the eras the external environment, the organizational environment, perspectives on the manager's job, and psychological applications are examined. Four conclusions are described in these categories: psychological perspectives accumulate across time; perspectives amplify; psychologists' perspectives await the times; and psychological perspectives advance in crisis. (ABL)
Publication Type: Opinion Papers; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association (100th, Washington, DC, August 14-18, 1992).