ERIC Number: ED349539
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1992-Feb
Reference Count: N/A
Entering Freshmen Hindered by Functional Illiteracy.
Sainz, JoAnn; Biggins, Catherine M.
Research has specifically linked dropping out of school to reading disabilities and related problems. Research on reading as a cognitive task has focused on reading as an active process with three questions of concern: (1) How does the learner learn to identify the printed word?; (2) How does he or she discriminate one word from another word?; and (3) How does he or she recognize a word upon seeing it again in a different context? Other research indicates that poor readers may have been created by present reading programs. The disabled reader is probably a disabled reader because he or she is introduced to words at an ever-increasing rate, and he or she finds it harder and harder to make the fine discriminations required to identify the words. Jean Piaget's theory of schemata consists of a framework for tying together the information about any given concept or event. As he defines it, long-term memory has three dimensions: (1) episodic or personal memory and semantic memory; (2) conceptual data hierarchy; and (3) stratification construct, which includes the production, retrieving, and using of these hierarchies, the organizing framework of schemata. Reading theorists suggest that non- or poor-readers who are inconsistent and inflexible in reading need direct teaching of more skills, more thorough initial input, and more reteaching and review than normal readers. But a constant problem is how to get the slow reader to work on the same words or sound-symbol associations over and over, how to keep interest high while slowing down the pace long enough to achieve mastery of skills. More research is needed in the area of the two types of learners identified by Piaget, the global-analytic and the reflective-impulsive. (Forty-two references are attached.) (RS)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A