ERIC Number: ED348038
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1992-Feb
Feedback, Questions and Information Processing--Putting It All Together.
Wager, Walter; Mory, Edna
This review of research on the effectiveness of adding questions to text materials to improve learning and the research on feedback posits that there is a connection between the findings in these two areas that can be viewed from an information processing perspective. A model of information processing taken from Gagne is used to organize the question and feedback effects. This model postulates features such as sensory registers, short-term memory, long-term memory, and an executive control mechanism. In addition to these internal processes, nine external events that can be made to influence the processes of learning: (1) gaining attention; (2) informing the learner of the objective; (3) stimulating recall of prerequisite learning; (4) presenting the stimulus material; (5) providing learning guidance; (6) eliciting the performance; (7) providing feedback about performance correctness; (8) assessing the performance; and (9) enhancing retention and transfer. It is argued that questions and feedback may serve different functions according to which event of instruction--that is, which internal process--they are being used to enhance. The various roles that questions can serve in the learning process are discussed in the context of each of the nine external events, and it is postulated that feedback also serves different purposes at different stages in learning. Some examples of how the role of the question might determine the appropriate type of feedback are provided in a table. It is suggested that, in order to determine the "best" type of feedback in a given situation, one has to take into consideration the purpose of the feedback as well as the type of question, the stage of information processing, and conditions within the learner. (37 references) (BBM)
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Opinion Papers; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A
Note: In: Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Presentations at the Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology and Sponsored by the Research and Theory Division; see IR 015 706.