ERIC Number: ED347996
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1992-Feb
Problem Identification Techniques: So What's the Problem?
Januszewski, Alan; Pearson, Robert
This discussion of different approaches to clarifying problems in the instructional development process defines what a problem is and the types of problems typically faced by instructional developers; presents a rationale for suggesting the use of evaluation models for finding development problems; and suggests ways in which the use of a particular evaluation approach may result in the finding of different problems. It is argued that problems are generated to be solved in instructional development (ID) and that needs assessment is the stage in the ID process where a problem is identified. Four factors that influence the ways in which instructional developers solve problems are suggested: (1) there is a set of rules under which the activity must operate; (2) there is ultimately one desired outcome--the problem that has been identified must be solved; (3) while there are rules, there are, nevertheless, many ways to solve an instructional development problem; and (4) it is clear when the instructional development problem has been solved. The role of values in the problem clarification process is briefly discussed, and six basic approaches to evaluation that may offer instructional developers some useful insights are reviewed: objectives oriented, management oriented, consumer oriented, expertise oriented, adversary oriented, and naturalistic and participant oriented. Possible uses of each of these approaches in needs assessment are suggested, and suggestions for further research conclude the paper. (11 references) (BBM)
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Opinion Papers; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: In: Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Presentations at the Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology and Sponsored by the Research and Theory Division; see IR 015 706.