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ERIC Number: ED347573
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1986-Jun-30
Pages: 8
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
A Developmental Study on Production of Refusals.
Naka, Makiko
A study investigated how people make indirect refusals ("You don't need to move the bookcase" meaning "No, I won't help you move it"), and the types of information used to do so. Two experiments were conducted. The first asked 130 students (third, fifth, and eighth graders as well as college undergraduates) to write refusals to a simple request. The second involved 48 pairs of students (from the same grade levels) in role plays. Results showed that refusals were made by canceling contextual information supporting the request (speaker's goal, speaker's situation, hearer's situation, hearer's reason to comply), and also by proposing action by the speaker to achieve his or her goal. Types of refusals were categorized and the conformability of contextual information used between speaker and hearer was measured. Third graders used the same types of refusals as undergraduates, but the frequencies of use were different. Findings suggest that the fundamental framework for making refusals--using contextual information--is in place before the third grade, and its use develops with age. (Two references, one table of data, and one figure are attached.) (SR)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A