ERIC Number: ED346995
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1992
Reference Count: N/A
Hill, Patty Smith
This reprint of an encyclopedia article describes the history of kindergarten education through approximately 1940. Kindergarten is defined as "a specialized school adapted to the nature and needs of young children from the fourth to the sixth year." Kindergarten was originated by Friedrich Froebel in Germany around 1840. Froebel's predecessors included Jean Frederic Oberlin, who established a preschool in Alsace (1774), and Robert Owen, who established a school for young children in New Lanark, Scotland (1800). The early kindergarten movement in the United States was influenced by philanthropic support and the psychological and philosophical ideas popular after 1890. The continued development of kindergarten in America was influenced by the work of G. Stanley Hall and John Dewey. By 1940, improvements in theory and practice in nursery schools, kindergartens, and primary grades included: (1) increased use of artistic play materials and equipment; (2) improved teaching methods; (3) an emphasis on sanitation and health; (4) improved standards for literature and art; (5) the use of hands-on experience in nature study and elementary science; (6) parental cooperation; and (7) a unified curriculum from nursery school through the primary grades. A bibliography of 45 items published between 1877 and 1940 is provided. A history of the Association for Childhood Education International through 1941, which was not included in the original encyclopedia article, is appended to this reprint. (BC)
Descriptors: Child Health, Childrens Literature, Educational Change, Educational History, Educational Improvement, Educational Philosophy, Educational Theories, Elementary School Curriculum, Kindergarten, Kindergarten Children, Preschool Curriculum, Preschool Education, Primary Education, Private Financial Support, Teaching Methods
Association for Childhood Education International, 11501 Georgia Avenue, Suite 315, Wheaton, MD 20902 ($5).
Publication Type: Historical Materials
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Association for Childhood Education International, Wheaton, MD.