ERIC Number: ED346521
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1992-Apr
Reference Count: N/A
Private Speech in the Classroom: The Effects of Activity Type, Presence of Others, Classroom Context, and Mixed-Age Grouping.
Winsler, Adam; Diaz, Rafael M.
A study addressed the question of how young children's spontaneous use of private speech in the kindergarten classroom varies as a function of contextual variables, such as type of activity, immediate presence of others, degree of teacher-given structure, and classroom age composition. Twenty children from two classrooms (one mixed-age, one same-age) were systematically observed in their regular kindergarten classroom for four weeks, using a time-sampling procedure. Results from ANOVA, chi-square, and logistic regression analyses indicated that young children's use of private speech does vary systematically according to the immediate physical and social context. More specifically, children were found to use more self-regulatory language when they were: (1) engaged in goal-directed task activity, compared to free play or other activities; (2) when they were in a classroom context which provided an intermediate degree of teacher regulation, compared to contexts in which either very little or a great deal of external structure was present; and (3) when they were with their younger classmates, compared to either their same-age or older peers. No differences in overall private speech usage were found between the mixed-age and same-age class. Frequency of private speech did not vary depending on whether children were alone, with other children, or with adults. (Four figures of data and 37 references are attached.) (Author/SR)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: California (San Francisco)