ERIC Number: ED346145
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1992-Apr
An Investigation of Achievement and Nonachievement Criteria in Elementary and Secondary School Grading.
Nava, Fe' Josefa G.; Loyd, Brenda H.
Criteria that teachers include in grading and the weight given each were investigated in a sample of 827 elementary school and high school teachers from 18 school districts. A three-section survey was administered to the subjects. Underlying dimensions of grading criteria were studied, and the relationship between including a specific criterion and its weight in a specific classroom context was examined. Elementary school and high school teachers were compared for use of grading criteria. Frequencies of teacher responses to 35 grading criteria were tabulated. Factor analysis and discriminant analysis identified teacher criteria. Teachers indicated that they definitely included five criteria in grading (unit tests, quizzes, essays or papers, effort, and semester tests). Six criteria were identified as probably included (projects, assignments, book reports, class participation, ability, and behavioral criteria), and four others were selected as "probably not" (spelling, grammar, handwriting, and aggressiveness). Gender, parent involvement in school activities, and parent involvement in class activities were identified as definitely not to be included. Four factors were identified as underlying dimensions of the grading criteria: (1) classroom behavior and characteristics enhancing the learning process; (2) measures of achievement and academic content; (3) student behavior and non-content academic skills; and (4) traits and factors external to the classroom. Clear differences were seen between elementary school and secondary school teachers. There are nine tables of study findings and a 12-item list of references. (SLD)
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Achievement Tests, Classroom Techniques, Comparative Analysis, Discriminant Analysis, Elementary School Teachers, Elementary Secondary Education, Evaluation Criteria, Factor Analysis, Factor Structure, Grading, Secondary School Teachers, Student Evaluation, Teacher Attitudes
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (San Francisco, CA, April 20-24, 1992).