ERIC Number: ED345713
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1991-Oct
The Development of Electronic Distance Education Delivery Systems in the United States. Recurring and Emerging Themes in History and Philosophy of Education.
Buckland, Michael; Dye, Charles M.
This paper presents a history of electronic distance education in the United States. Three broad categories of delivery systems are described: (1) over-the-air open circuit systems such as VHF-UHF stations, microwave, instructional television fixed service (ITFS), communications satellites, and educational radio and television; (2) through-the-wire, or closed circuit systems such as intraschool closed-circuit television, cable television, telephone applications, and campus information networks; and (3) direct physical delivery, including hand-carried videotapes, cassettes, discs, mail, videotape recordings, and library materials. Discussion focuses primarily on over-the-air and through-the-wire delivery systems, with emphasis on relevant U.S. government legislation. The history begins in 1844 with the telegraph, continues through the telegraph printer, the first transatlantic telegraph cable (1869), telephones (1876), the phonograph (1877), and through 1896 with the first patent for radio obtained by Marconi. Twentieth century advancements in communications technology are discussed in detail. Federal legislation noted includes the 1912 and 1927 Radio Acts, the development of the Federal Radio Commission, predecessor of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), and other standards adopted first for the regulation of the radio spectrum and then for the regulation of the television spectrum. Also included in this discussion are the development of national organizations and agencies, convened in response to special interest groups and to specific uses for the media. Two chronologies are provided: the development and use of technology from 1812 to 1990, and legislation and philanthropy in distance education from 1910 to 1984. (25 references) (DB)
Descriptors: Artificial Intelligence, Cable Television, Communications Satellites, Delivery Systems, Distance Education, Educational Radio, Educational Television, Federal Legislation, Higher Education, Information Networks, Microcomputers, Public Television, Technological Advancement, Telecommunications
Publication Type: Historical Materials; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Midwestern Educational Research Association (13th, Chicago, IL, October 16-19, 1991).