ERIC Number: ED345553
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1992
The Strategies of the Successful Listener: Classroom Implications.
Learning strategies are the steps taken to facilitate acquisition, storage, retrieval, and use of information. Although this process is common to all learners, researchers have found that good second language learners consciously use appropriate language strategies. Strategies are identified in these broad categories: cognitive; memory; compensation; communication; metacognitive; affective; and social. Many have proven effective in language learning, but are not applied automatically. In order to learn more about individuals' use of specific strategies, researchers have tried self-report interviews and surveys, including a "think-aloud" approach to identifying specific mental processes. One researcher has defined nine interviewing principles for discovering student learning strategies. These principles, developed for second language reading, were tested in the area of listening comprehension, and 10 major differences between successful and unsuccessful language learners were outlined. While learning strategies are teachable, there is no consensus on how to teach them. Explicit and implicit training and a combination of the two have all been recommended. Implications for teaching effective second language listening strategies include the following: care must be taken in the selection of authentic materials; comprehensible input is essential; ambiguity must be removed; stress variables should be reduced; and learning should be meaningful. A 25-item bibliography is included. (MSE)
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Cincinnati Conference on Romance Languages and Literatures (10th, Cincinnati, OH).