ERIC Number: ED341954
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1992
Reference Count: N/A
Critical Thinking: Helping Students Learn Reflectively.
Shermis, S. Samuel
Based upon the idea that the only hope for substantial curricular reform and for adoption of reflective inquiry in American schools is for teachers to redefine the basic pedagogical concepts that they have inherited, this book discusses how to teach students to reflect upon what they learn in school. The three major sections of the book discuss: (1) reasons why educators still do not teach reflective inquiry; (2) a theory of reflective inquiry; and (3) teachers and students identifying and internalizing problems. Topics in the first section concern barriers to reflective inquiry, philosophical assumptions that prevent reflective thought, teaching as transmission, philosophical absolutes, a semantic analysis, eclecticism, and cultural forces. Topics in the second section concern John Dewey's conception of reflective thinking, what one must know before the process of inquiry begins, thought and emotion, knowledge as a function of a theory of reality, the subjective/objective dualism, knowledge as pluralistic, values as inseparable from knowledge, transmission as the result of a philosophical position, discussion as the heart of inquiry, and what reflective discussion is. Finally, the third section discusses problem-solving and reflective inquiry, a model of reflective teaching in action, and implications of applied critical inquiry for schools. An appendix presenting a brief synopsis of Bloom's taxonomy and a 108-item bibliography are attached. (RS)
Descriptors: Critical Thinking, Educational Attitudes, Elementary Secondary Education, Higher Education, Problem Solving, Reflective Teaching, Teacher Role, Thinking Skills
ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Indiana University, 2805 E. 10th St., Suite 150, Bloomington, IN 47408-2698 ($10.95 plus $3.00 postage/handling).
Publication Type: Guides - Non-Classroom; ERIC Publications
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Bloomington, IN.