ERIC Number: ED340640
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1991-Jan-23
Barriers to the Promotion of Higher Order Thinking in Social Studies.
Onosko, Joseph J.
Based on interviews with teachers, department chairs, principals, and staff developers, observations of hundreds of lessons, and a perusal of the social studies research literature and the broader school change literature, dominant barriers to the promotion of thinking were identified. Six barriers emerged: instruction as knowledge transmission, a curriculum of coverage, teacher perceptions of students, large number of students, lack of planning time, and a culture of teacher isolation. The way in which each barrier negatively impacts the promotion of students' higher order thinking is explained, combining analytic arguments with quantitative and qualitative research findings. It is argued that though there is no logical or necessary sequence of attack when confronting these barriers, due to their interactive nature, department-, school-, and system-wide efforts to improve students' higher-order thinking are more likely to experience success if all barriers are tackled. A 42-item list of references is included. (Author)
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A