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ERIC Number: ED340460
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1991
Pages: 45
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: N/A
Developmental Changes in Early Communicative Competence.
Holdgrafer, Gary E.; Dunst, Carl J.
A proposed model of communicative behavior suggests a series of seven progressively more complex levels of communicative competence: (1) behavior state; (2) recognitory; (3) contingency; (4) instrumental; (5) triadic; (6) verbal-contextual; and (7) verbal-decontextual. Tables define these levels in detail and list their characteristics. Each level is exemplified by particular engagement and termination behaviors. In a study designed to determine whether children follow the proposed model, a total of 68 children between 1 day and 30 months of age were observed while playing with their mothers. Interactions were coded for children's communicative behaviors, and performance criteria were established for mastery of each level of communicative competence. Also noted were the age at which a behavior from a particular level first appeared; the basal age, at which at least one child met the criteria for mastery of a behavior; and the ceiling age, at which all children exhibited mastery of the level. Results indicated that, beginning with level 3, the first appearance of a behavior from a level was concurrent with the basal age for the preceding level. Results supported the proposed model. Estimated age ranges for each level are given. A list of 55 references is provided. Appendixes include definitions of specific termination and engagement behaviors in each of the levels and a copy of the observation coding form. (BC)
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Canada (Edmonton)