ERIC Number: ED339819
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1990
Reference Count: N/A
Adult Literacy in the Third World: A Review of Objectives and Strategies.
Lind, Agneta; Johnston, Anton
Today, nearly 1 billion adults are totally illiterate; the large majority are women. Varying and vague definitions of literacy abound in the literature and in practice. Literacy is only a potential tool that can be used for a variety of economic, social, political, and cultural purposes. Three principal state objectives for launching literacy programs may be sociopolitical, economic, and demand-meeting. National nongovernmental organizations often play an important role in the organization and teaching of adult literacy. Factors that explain low attendance and weak individual motivation are conditions of poverty in rural areas, lack of self-confidence, disillusionment, discouraging teaching methods, and lack of easy and useful reading material. Literacy strategies with major influence in developing countries are the following approaches: fundamental education, selective-intensive functional, conscientization, and mass campaign. Other literacy programs may differ from or borrow from the aforementioned approaches, and may focus on popular education, oneshot campaigns to eradicate illiteracy, eradication of illiteracy by a series of campaigns, general literacy programs, and/or selective small-scale programs. Post-literacy is important for motivation, for consolidating literacy, and for preventing relapse into illiteracy. A process of social change and mobilization is necessary to sustain women's participation. Crucial research areas include the impact and use of literacy, learning literacy in a second language, contents and methods, dropout, quality versus quantity, sponsorship, and organization of literacy. (127 references) (YLB)
Descriptors: Adult Basic Education, Adult Literacy, Developing Nations, Economic Development, Educational Research, Foreign Countries, Illiteracy, Learning Motivation, Literacy Education, National Organizations, National Programs, Program Effectiveness, Program Evaluation, Public Policy, Research Needs, Teaching Methods, Womens Education
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA).