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ERIC Number: ED337759
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1991-Sep-21
Pages: 30
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
Learning Controversy: A Situational Perspective.
Simmons, Joan
There are two divergent points of view concerning the placement and instruction of special students in regular middle school language arts and reading classrooms: cooperative learning, and direct instruction. Three areas of research have emerged from the social model of teaching strategies having to do with helping students study and learn together using the cooperative learning process. Meta-analysis of relevant studies indicates that cooperative learning activities results in both greater retention and higher achievement for students than other situations. Most of the criticism involves the structure of the cooperative activity rather than the value of cooperative learning. Direct instruction includes a great deal of academic engaged time in a teacher-directed classroom where sequential and structured materials are used. Numerous studies have indicated the effectiveness and enumerated the advantages of direct instruction for special education students, while other studies point out problems of direct instruction. The Situational Leadership Model commonly used in public policy decisions can aid in choosing an instructional model; it can be used to assess the teacher's own characteristics, the students' characteristics, and the type of classroom characteristics that are most useful in individual classroom situations. Learning models must fit the situation: middle school reading teachers will need to decide how much modification will be necessary to alter the instructional setting and to adapt materials. (A figure describing the Situational Leadership model is included; 26 references are attached.) (RS)
Publication Type: Guides - Classroom - Teacher; Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A