ERIC Number: ED337757
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1991-Dec
Reference Count: N/A
Integrating High and Low Literacy: A Working Model.
Marzano, Robert J.
Most discussions of literacy involve at least two types: low literacy (involving knowledge and use of the strategies and conventions important to reading, writing, and vocabulary development) and high literacy (including these competencies along with a number of thinking and reasoning strategies that augment and deepen these abilities). Turning this model of literacy into a working classroom program involves a careful balance of freedom and focus. Using unstructured (free reading, oral reading, and poetry reading) and structured (reading, writing, and vocabulary workshops) activities balances the need for a free-flowing language environment and the need for focused instruction on strategies. The workshop approach is founded on three principles: time (an instructional pace allowing for natural and unhurried learning), choice (freedom of selection of tasks and the manner those tasks are performed), and community (students and teachers sharing the processes and products of their reading, writing, and thinking). Workshops commonly include a mini-lesson, an activity period, and a sharing time. The vocabulary workshop plays a central role in connecting the reading and writing workshops. Using a semantic cluster approach, students are presented words in the form of individual student vocabulary wordbooks. Based on the first year of field testing, the high literacy approach positively affects students in a number of areas. (Lists of categories of thinking and reasoning skills, of words in a semantically related cluster and of 61 semantic clusters, a diagram of the model of high literacy, pre- and post-intervention writing samples, and 16 references are attached.) (RS)
Publication Type: Guides - Classroom - Teacher
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Mid-Continent Regional Educational Lab., Aurora, CO.