ERIC Number: ED337689
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1991-Sep
Reference Count: N/A
Designing Effective Learning Environments: Cognitive Apprenticeship Models.
Berryman, Sue E.
IEE Brief, n1 Sep 1991
Using cognitive science as the knowledge base for the discussion, this paper reviews why many school learning situations are ineffective and introduces cognitive apprenticeship models that suggest what effective learning situations might look like. Five wrong assumptions about learning are examined: (1) people transfer learning from one situation to another; (2) learners are passive receivers of wisdom; (3) learning is the strengthening of bonds between stimuli and correct responses; (4) learners are blank slates; and (5) skills and knowledge should be acquired independent of their contexts of use. Cognitive scientists use a wide array of knowledge and experience to design effective learning environments, including the work of 19th- and early 20th-century educators, analyses of apprenticeship learning and of the spectacular learning of young children, and an extensive body of cognitive science research. The Collins, Brown, and Newman cognitive apprenticeship model is recommended; its four building blocks--content, methods, sequence, and sociology--together define an effective learning situation. Current programs for integrating academic and vocational education and apprenticeships in light of the cognitive apprenticeship model are described. The paper concludes that the cognitive apprenticeship model could be a good vehicle for learning and should be implemented in more situations. (13 references) (KC)
Descriptors: Academic Education, Apprenticeships, Cognitive Processes, Educational Improvement, Epistemology, Integrated Curriculum, Learning Theories, Models, Postsecondary Education, Secondary Education, Vocational Education
Institute on Education and the Economy, Box 174, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 ($7.50).
Publication Type: Collected Works - Serials
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: William T. Grant Foundation, Washington, DC. Commission on Work, Family, and Citizenship.
Authoring Institution: Columbia Univ., New York, NY. Inst. on Education and the Economy.