ERIC Number: ED331663
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1991-Mar-15
Reference Count: 0
The Condition of the Diverse Regions of Rural America at the Start of the Decade of the 1990s.
Stephens, E. Robert
This paper constructs a profile of the condition of the diverse areas of rural America at the Beginning of the 1990s. The widely used designation of metropolitan or nonmetropolitan areas based on the metropolitan statistical area (MSA) does not describe the diverse nature of rural America. One alternative typology differentiates nonmetro counties by degree of urbanization or proximity to metro areas. Another typology categorizes nonmetro counties based on seven primary economic activities. Six major trends impacting rural America and rural education are: (1) transformations in the world economy including increased world production of food that has exceeded demand, a decline in the amount of raw materials needed for production, and lower production costs abroad; (2) restructuring of the national economy with a shift from a goods-producing to a service-producing economy; (3) changes in population patterns with a much lower growth rate for nonmetro areas than metro areas; (4) changes in the federal role resulting in reduced funding levels; (5) added fiscal pressures on local governments; and (6) shifts in political power of local governments to metropolitan areas. Hypothesized effects of these trends are rated for the seven categories of nonmetro areas based on primary economic activity. The projected condition is good for areas where specialized government and destination retirement are the primary economic activity. The categories of farming-dependent, manufacturing-dependent, and mining-dependent are relatively poor, and areas of persistent poverty are relatively stressful. This paper contains numerous figures and tables. (KS)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Information Analyses; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the American Education Finance Association (Williamsburg, VA, March 15, 1991).