ERIC Number: ED331177
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1991-Apr
Transformational and Transactional Leadership: An Empirical Test of a Theory.
Hoover, Nancy R.; And Others
Leadership styles based on Bass's model of transformational and transactional leadership are explored in this report. Questionnaires were administered to staff and faculty at 45 private secondary schools in the southeast United States to determine the headmasters' leadership qualities. Factors of transformational leadership include charisma, individualized consideration, and intellectual stimulation; transactional leadership involves contingent reward and management-by-exception. Findings indicate that the transformational and transactional factors identified in other studies of business supervisors were replicated in the population of private secondary school headmasters. Also, perceptions of headmaster effectiveness and satisfaction with the headmaster were more positively correlated with transformational than with transactional leadership. Outcomes that differed from previous studies, however, indicate a broader definition of "charisma" due to its overlapping components and the identification of the two separate factors of leadership as second-order factors. The headmasters were less concerned than business supervisors with emotional support and intellectual stimulation of their staff relationships; however, both business and educational settings practiced individual attention, contingent rewards, and management-by-exception. Twelve tables are included. (23 references) (LMI)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, April 3-7, 1991).