ERIC Number: ED331089
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1991
Reference Count: N/A
Cultivating Thinking in English and the Language Arts.
Marzano, Robert J.
This book draws on recent theory and research to suggest ways teachers (grades K-12) can raise the levels of thinking involved in classroom activities and give students practice in higher mental operations. Taking the position that helping students understand their own mental processes also helps them function at higher levels in the English classroom, the book highlights principles that govern thinking and learning, and suggests ways teachers can make students aware that they learn within a context of personal beliefs about the value of the subject matter and their own abilities, and that if these beliefs are limiting, they can work to change and enlarge them. It describes activities that help students not only understand how they link new knowledge with their existing schemata of knowledge but also reshape those schemata to accommodate new ideas. Finally, the book offers ideas for coaching students on how to monitor their own mental processes to achieve peak engagement in learning tasks. Key elements in the book's program for emphasizing thinking are journal writing and transactional response activities for literature study of characters and motivation. The book's five sections are: (1) A Framework for Cultivating Thinking; (2) Contextual Thinking; (3) Constructing Meaning through Transactional Response; (4) Knowledge Development through Meaningful, Complex, Long-Term Tasks; and (5) Providing a Structure for Higher-Order Thinking. A 117-item bibliography is attached. (SR)
Descriptors: Class Activities, Critical Thinking, Elementary Secondary Education, English Instruction, Language Arts, Learning Strategies, Metacognition, Skill Development, Theory Practice Relationship, Thinking Skills
National Council of Teachers of English, 1111 Kenyon Rd., Urbana, IL 61801 (Stock No. 09918-0015, $6.95 members, $8.95 nonmembers).
Publication Type: Books
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: National Council of Teachers of English, Urbana, IL.