ERIC Number: ED329413
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1990-Jul
Reference Count: N/A
Labor Market Participation, Returns to Education, and Male-Female Wage Differences in Peru.
Khandker, Shahidur R.
Based on a human capital model, this paper uses household survey data from Peru to estimate differences between males and females in labor-market participation, productivity (measured in wages), and economic returns to education. The focus is on human capital, especially education, as a determinant of labor participation and productivity. The analysis used wage regression based on ordinary least squares and decomposition technique. The survey data identifies household characteristics (including landholding and unearned income) and market data, such as wages, that influence people's time allocation. Male wage earners are slightly more educated than women, except in some urban areas. Employed women, however, have more vocational training than employed men. Women generally receive lower real hourly wages than their male counterparts. Unearned income and landholding generally decrease the probability of labor-market participation for both. The data suggest that improving women's education can increase their labor market participation faster than increases in men's education would affect theirs. Financial returns for schooling are relatively higher for women than for men, especially at the secondary and postsecondary levels. The paper concludes: (1) that public education is less effective than private in raising productivity and reducing wage gaps; (2) that investment in women's education has numerous benefits; and (3) that households and communities are likely the main sources of gender bias regarding parental investment in children's education. (TES)
Descriptors: Comparable Worth, Elementary Secondary Education, Employed Women, Employment Patterns, Family Characteristics, Family (Sociological Unit), Foreign Countries, Human Capital, Labor Force Development, Labor Market, Outcomes of Education, Productivity, Rural Urban Differences, Sex Differences, Surveys, Womens Education
World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433 (free).
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: World Bank, Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Peru