ERIC Number: ED328952
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1990-Nov
Reference Count: N/A
Education, Adjustment, and Democracy in Latin America. Development Discussion Paper No. 363.
Reimers, Fernando M.
This document examines changes in Latin American economies and educational systems during the 1980s and the responses of the Latin American democracies. Following a description of changes in Latin American public expenditures in the 1980s and subsequent adjustments in education expenditures, the dynamics of the adjustment in Costa Rica and Venezuela are detailed. Background information on education in Costa Rica and Venezuela is provided and inequalities in educational quality and access in those countries are identified. The document describes the countries' economic crises of the 1980s and the resulting changes in the amount and structure of educational expenditures and other distortions of the countries' financial adjustments. Several related effects are also described:(1) a decline in teacher salaries and the quality of school buildings; (2) changes in teacher-student ratios; (3) an increase in the percentage of students repeating grades; (4) increased or persistent educational inequality among different income groups; (5) changes in the numbers of institutions, teachers, and students by educational level; and (6) a decrease in instructional effectiveness. Last, the increased inefficiency of the educational decision-making powers in Latin America is described and suggestions to reverse the recent decline are proposed. Included are 20 tables and 4 figures. (CLA)
Descriptors: Access to Education, Economic Change, Educational Development, Educational Finance, Elementary Secondary Education, Enrollment Rate, Expenditure per Student, Financial Problems, Foreign Countries, Grade Repetition, Latin American History, Politics of Education, Resource Allocation, Teacher Salaries
Publication Type: Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Audience: Policymakers; Practitioners
Authoring Institution: Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Inst. for International Development.
Identifiers - Location: Costa Rica; Venezuela