ERIC Number: ED328627
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1989
Teacher Expectations and Low-Achieving Students.
Research on teacher and school effectiveness indicates that higher expectations for student achievement are part of a pattern of differential attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors characterizing teachers and schools that are effective in maximizing their students' learning gains. This resource document reviews research that indicates how differential treatment by teachers may negatively affect the behavior and learning of students for whom there are low expectations. The effect of negative teacher behaviors is that low-expectation students are given fewer opportunities to interact and participate in classroom activities, and as a result make less effort to get the teacher's attention, gradually withdrawing psychologically from learning in the classroom setting. Teacher expectations seem to be an especially powerful variable for elementary school students, whereas secondary and postsecondary students tend to rely to a greater extent on self-evaluation and a wider range of significant others to provide them with feedback, support, and encouragement to continue learning when faced with failure. Appropriate teacher expectations must ultimately be based on objective, ongoing evaluation of student performance. The document presents recommendations and sample strategies for addressing differential treatment of low-expectation students. Descriptions of five sample programs and a list of 44 references are included. (AF)
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Audience: Teachers; Administrators; Practitioners
Sponsor: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Research for Better Schools, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.