ERIC Number: ED327350
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1990
Reference Count: N/A
Instructional Time as a Factor in Increasing Student Achievement.
Research on the influence of instructional time on student achievement has focused on the concept of academic learning time and its major components--allocated time, engaged time, and level of difficulty. This report reviews three studies that concur that increasing allocated time, in itself, has little influence on student achievement. Walberg notes that time is only one of nine major factors affecting student achievement, and argues for the expansion of "productive time" (allocated plus engaged time) through a classroom emphasis on individual student learning differences and small-group instruction. Dewalt and Rodwell's observations in a rural elementary school and Cotton's review of research findings reinforce the necessity of employing sound teaching methods and classroom techniques in conjunction with increased allocated time. Cotton's recommendations for teachers and administrators are listed. Among 12 other related studies, 1 found a clear positive relationship between allocated time and student achievement; 4 found learning time to be a moderate predictor of school achievement; and 7 suggested that considerable increases in the amount of schooling would be required to produce even modest increases in achievement. A table lists state requirements for minimum school days and hours. (SV)
Publication Type: Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.