ERIC Number: ED320774
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1990
Reference Count: N/A
Manipulative Materials in the Primary Level Mathematics Lesson: Are There Viable Alternatives?
Karp, Karen Silliman
The reality of classroom practices raises a question worth investigation: Are there programs that do not rely on the use of manipulatives that might provide successful mathematics instruction? This paper investigated achievement differences between students in three mathematics programs ranging from a strict manipulative focus to an abstract, non-manipulative approach. The programs incorporated were Explorations by Addison Wesley (the most manipulative in focus), Silver Burdett's Mathematics (a traditional program with several manipulatives suggested), and Comprehensive School Mathematics Program (CSMP, a non-traditional program with a emphasis on non-verbal languages). Pre-testing was in October; post-testing was in spring. Data from teacher questionnaires and formal interviews were collected. The results of the Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) revealed that the CSMP was significantly more effective than others. The CSMP was able to hold students at their previous performance level or move them to a higher level. There was no correlation between students' mathematics achievement and teacher experience. Teachers involved with the Explorations program detailed difficulties in classroom management, extensive amounts of time spent making materials and the necessity for longer mathematics sessions. (YP)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Boston, MA, April 16-20, 1990).