ERIC Number: ED318907
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1988
Reference Count: N/A
The Road to Poverty: A Report on the Economic Status of Midlife and Older Women in America. Mother's Day Report 1988.
Older Women's League, Washington, DC.
Women of all ages continue to enter the work force in greater numbers while the work force participation rate for males is declining. Women are disproportionately concentrated in low-paying, dead-end jobs. Employment discrimination continues to be a significant problem. Job interruptions necessitated by family responsibilities are a major factor in poverty among midlife and older women. Although the median income of women at all ages falls below that of men, the disparity is greatest for midlife women. Pension participation is least likely among low wage, part-time workers and in many industries where female workers predominate. Pension participation by women often either requires larger contributions than those paid by men or produces fewer benefits in retirement. Older women have less Social Security income than men and are more likely to rely on it as their sole source of support. Despite the increased labor force participation of women, their economic status remains tied to men. Women are negatively affected by Social Security and private pension regulations that determine the benefits they receive after divorce or the death of a spouse. Midlife women are disproportionately represented among the 21 million adults without health insurance. Family responsibilities remain the primary reason given by women who remain outside the paid work force. (A 42-item listing of sources is included.) (CML)
Descriptors: Adults, Child Rearing, Economic Status, Employed Women, Employees, Employment Patterns, Equal Opportunities (Jobs), Family Caregivers, Labor Market, Older Adults, Part Time Employment, Personnel Integration, Poverty, Quality of Life, Retirement Benefits, Salary Wage Differentials, Sex Discrimination, Unskilled Occupations
Older Women's League, 730 Eleventh Street, N.W., Suite 300. Washington, DC 20001 ($2.00).
Publication Type: Numerical/Quantitative Data
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Older Women's League, Washington, DC.
Identifiers - Laws, Policies, & Programs: Social Security