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ERIC Number: ED317992
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1990-Mar-23
Pages: 32
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
The Effect of Different Types of Knowledge on the Writing Process.
Smagorinsky, Peter
A study investigated the composing process to examine why different types of instruction have different effects on composing products. The study contrasted three treatments: (1) presenting students with models (the traditional method); (2) the general procedures approach stressing freethinking process; and (3) a method stressing task-specific procedures (a less published approach). Six typical students from each treatment contributed protocols for the study. The protocols were divided into two general segments: content and process. Content categories identified statements in which students generated the elements of a definition as taught in the instructional treatments. Students generated three main types of generalizations: criterion (rule that provides a contrast between members and non-members); attribute (attempted criterion that does not provide contrast; and incidental statements (statement about the topic). In addition to content statements, students indicated in their protocols various composing processes, including: Block (student expresses difficulty with definition task); Search (writers initiate a review of their knowledge); and Task Conception (writers refer to the assignment, instruction, or other factors that constrained or directed their writing. Results indicated that the one measurement by which all treatments improved was the support of criteria with contrasting examples, a skill essential to writing clear definitions. Students who showed the greatest improvement in all three areas were those who combined the study of models with Task Specific composing procedures. These students showed an understanding of definition construction by linking the elements of a definition purposefully. (Information accompanying 11 overheads is included.) (MG)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A