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ERIC Number: ED317459
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1989-Nov
Pages: 15
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
The Elimination of Turkish Language Instruction in Bulgaria.
Eminov, Ali
The goals of language policies in Marxist-Leninist states tend to be applied in three stages: (1) pluralism, (2) bilingualism, and (3) monolingualism. The language policies in Bulgaria, particularly as applied to the Turkish minority, fit this pattern. A pluralistic language and education tradition in Bulgaria, inherited from the Ottoman Empire, lasted until World War II. Turks and other national minorities were given rights to control their own schools and use their own language. Turkish schools in Bulgaria were important in maintaining language, religion and ethnic identity among Turks. Political changes in the 1920s and 1930s caused many of these schools to be closed, so that by the end of World War II their number had been reduced by 75 percent. After Communist Party consolidation of power in post-war Bulgaria, schools were nationalized, and the government worked for the assimilation of all minority groups into mainstream Bulgarian culture. From 1946 to about 1960, policies encouraged bilingualism among the Turkish minority. From 1960 to about 1970, the Bulgarian government consolidated Turkish schools with Bulgarian schools and eliminated Turkish language instruction. Turkish language publications of all types were gradually eliminated from libraries, bookstores, and homes. The transition to bilingualism and eventually monolingualism was aimed at facilitating assimilation; however, the Turkish minority have continued their social and cultural activities in Turkish. Since these people live in ethnically homogeneous communities that are physically isolated from Bulgarians, Turkish language will most likely continue to strengthen the Turkish minority. (AS)
Publication Type: Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Bulgaria