ERIC Number: ED317454
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1989
Reference Count: N/A
We Specialize in the Wholly Impossible: African-American Women School Founders and Their Mission.
McCluskey, Audrey Thomas
Charlotte Hawkins Brown, Mary McLeod Bethune, and Nannie Helen Burroughs were women with a mission. It was a mission that combined educational, social, and economic goals. Although different in their tactics and in their educational programs, these women, who founded schools in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, were united in their belief that black women had to assume the initiative in educating themselves and their people. Knowing the harsh realities that blacks, especially women, faced, McLeod and Burroughs focused on the attainment of skills that would provide alternatives to unemployment while teaching leadership and pride. The stereotype of black women as an unfit lot, moved the founders to action in stressing deportment above all else. But as the founders matured in their vision, they began to make important connections between the self-sufficiency of their schools and the self-sufficiency of their communities. Broadening their appeal among blacks by offering more diverse and relevant courses, they increased their black support and became, over time, less dependent on the whims of white philanthropy. (JB)
Descriptors: Black Achievement, Black Education, Black Institutions, Black Leadership, Black Students, Black Studies, Blacks, Females, Leaders, Postsecondary Education, Secondary Education, Womens Education
Women's Studies Program, Memorial Hall East, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405.
Publication Type: Historical Materials
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A