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ERIC Number: ED317089
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1989-Nov
Pages: 21
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
(Bi)literacy and Empowerment: Education for Indigenous Groups in Brazil.
Chacoff, Ana
There are approximately 170 indigenous languages spoken in Brazil, by a population of about 200,000. Language policy regarding these communities has not been well defined or explicit. Through several changes of constitution, only Portuguese has been considered the national and official language. Only recently has the government begun to develop a formal policy giving justice to linguistic minorities. Bilingual education for Indians and the right to maintain native languages were ensured in 1966. Instruction in native languages was established in 1973. However, this policy has not been widely implemented. Two viewpoints emerge in the literature: (1) that the native language should be used for development of first language skills, and (2) that Portuguese should be the medium of instruction. There is no consensus about language choice. The result is that in practice, bilingual education in Brazil is either transitional or mingled with the literacy process, in which both languages are used simultaneously for a brief time. Independent bilingual education projects have adopted Freirean methodology and support cultural pluralism and indigenous autonomy. There is evidence that these independent efforts, while purporting to be pluralistic, are actually assimilative in orientation. A 40-item bibliography is included. (MSE) (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse on Literacy Education)
Publication Type: Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Brazil