ERIC Number: ED316767
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1990-Feb
Motivation Theories of Maslow, Herzberg, McGregor & McClelland. A Literature Review of Selected Theories Dealing with Job Satisfaction and Motivation.
Pardee, Ronald L.
Job satisfaction, motivation, and reward systems are included in one area of organizational theory. The strongest influence in this area is motivation because it overlaps into both of the other two components. A review of the classical literature on motivation reveals four major theory areas: (1) Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs; (2) Herzberg's Motivation/Hygiene (two factor) Theory; (3) McGregor's X Y Theories; and (4) McClelland's Need for Assessment Theory. Maslow states that people are motivated by unmet needs which are in a hierarchical order that prevents people from being motivated by a need area unless all lower level needs have been met. Herzberg states that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not on the same continuum and are therefore not opposites. He further states that the motivational factors can cause satisfaction or no satisfaction while the hygiene factors cause dissatisfaction when absent and no dissatisfaction when present, both having magnitudes of strength. McClelland's need for achievement underlies Maslow's self-actualization. McGregor's Theory Y matches much of Maslow's self-actualization level of motivation. It is based on the assumption that self-direction, self-control, and maturity control motivation. Reward systems must correspond to intrinsic factors if employees are to be motivated. Satisfying extrinsic factors is an all too commonly attempted method for motivating workers, but theory shows that these efforts cannot lead to motivated workers. (Author/ABL)
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Reports - General
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A