ERIC Number: ED315710
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1990-Feb
Reference Count: 0
Retention in Grade: A Failed Procedure.
Balow, Irving H.; Schwager, Mahna
Retention of pupils results in a need for additional teachers, facilities, and materials at a rate approximating the rate of retention. Retention is a more serious problem for the state, which needs to pay most of these increased costs. This paper reviews the research evidence to assess the cost-effectiveness of student retention policies. Following a short review of the history of retention, the paper reviews the literature on the effectiveness of retention, then addresses the issue of retention as a means of maintaining the integrity of the curriculum. It also considers the use of standardized tests or locally developed tests as important elements of promotion standards, and the reliability and validity of letter grades or marks, which provide the professional judgment on which retention may be based. The conclusion is drawn that retention in grade has virtually no benefits for the pupils retained, their classmates, their teachers, or their schools. References are included. (Author/TE)
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: California Educational Research Cooperative, Riverside.