ERIC Number: ED315485
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1989-Nov
Reference Count: N/A
Underachievement and Educational Disadvantage: The Home and School Experience of At-Risk Youth. Urban Diversity Series No. 99.
Bempechat, Janine; Ginsburg, Herbert P.
Research on academic achievement and high risk students over the past 30 years indicates that the home, the school, or the community can be the source of insufficient educational experiences that contribute to educational disadvantage. About 30 percent of the present school population is estimated to be at risk of failure, and demographic projections predict a dramatic increase in the poor and minority school-age populations that largely comprise this group. This document comprises a review of the demographic factors associated with educational disadvantage and school failure, the scope and nature of problem behaviors associated with school failure, and educational programs and practices that appear to be effective in increasing the cognitive development of high risk students. The following predictors of school failure are discussed: (1) poverty status; (2) race and ethnicity; (3) family and household characteristics; (4) parent education; and (5) language minority status. The following problem behaviors of high risk youth are discussed: (1) truancy; (2) grade retention; (3) school suspension; (4) dropping out; (5) drug and alcohol abuse; (6) teenage pregnancy; and (7) teenage childbearing. The following effective educational strategies for high risk students are discussed: (1) types of school-based compensatory education programs and extended day/year programs; (2) some examples of school-wide reform and community-based approaches; (3) parent participation; and (4) instructional techniques. Further research would benefit from attention to definition and measurement of risk factors, and from the use of ethnographic research methods. A list of 178 references is appended. (FMW)
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Community Influence, Compensatory Education, Educationally Disadvantaged, Elementary Secondary Education, Family Influence, High Risk Students, Literature Reviews, Minority Group Children, Predictor Variables, Research Needs, School Demography, School Effectiveness, Student Behavior, Underachievement, Urban Schools
ERIC Clearinghouse, Teachers College, Box 40, Columbia Univ., New York, NY 10027 ($8.00).
Publication Type: ERIC Publications; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education, New York, NY.
Identifiers - Laws, Policies, & Programs: Education Consolidation Improvement Act Chapter 1