ERIC Number: ED314723
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1990-Jan
Modifying Reading Instruction to Maximize Its Effectiveness for All Students. Technical Report No. 489.
Garcia, Georgia Earnest; Pearson, P. David
This report discusses how reading instruction should be modified to facilitate the development of comprehension strategies in all children (including those labeled as "at-risk" or "disadvantaged"). Current theoretical views of reading comprehension do not support a discrete skills perspective, but classroom research has documented the influence of basal reading programs on elementary reading instruction. Current views of reading suggest that readers are involved in a recursive search for meaning in which they deploy their own knowledge in concert with perceptions from the text and context to create a dynamic interpretation. In the search for an appropriate instructional model, four delivery models were reviewed: direct instruction, explicit instruction, cognitive apprenticeship, and whole language; none, however, were found capable of providing the appropriate delivery system for a comprehension focus. Based on this review, a consensus model of instruction, incorporating features of each model that are appropriate for designing instruction for low-achieving students, is delineated. It includes (1) teacher modeling, to let students in on the secrets; (2) task and text authenticity, to ensure purposefulness; (3) scaffolding, to cope with complexity; and (4) shared decision making, to develop self assessment. This approach to reading instruction requires teachers to move away from the "teacher-proof" model frequently offered in conventional programs to a model in which they make most decisions within their classrooms. (A list of 121 references is attached.) (Author/RS)
Publication Type: Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Illinois Univ., Urbana. Center for the Study of Reading.; Bolt, Beranek and Newman, Inc., Cambridge, MA.