ERIC Number: ED313701
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1989-Jul
Reference Count: N/A
Planning in Writing: The Cognition of a Constructive Process. Technical Report No. 34.
Flower, Linda; And Others
Based on the premise that planning in writing is a strategic response to both the writing situation and the writer's own knowledge, this paper describes the process adult writers bring to ill-defined, expository tasks, such as writing essays, articles, reports and proposals. The paper also states that in planning, writers draw on (nest and integrate) three executive level strategies: knowledge-driven planning, script- or schema-driven planning, and constructive planning. Research in both instructional and academic writing which suggests that writers may fail to turn to a constructive strategy even when ill-defined tasks demand it is examined in the paper. Based on a detailed analysis of expert and novice writers, the paper presents a theory of constructive strategy and isolates five critical features in which writers must create a unique network of working goals and deal with the special problems of integration, conflict resolution and instantiation this constructive process entails. The paper also describes the strategies writers use to meet these demands and some expert/novice differences that affect the integration of the entire plan. The theoretical framework presented in the paper also suggests some goals for instruction and the support of planning. Ten figures and four tables of data are included; 57 references are attached. (KEH)
Publication Type: Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Naval Research, Washington, DC. Psychological Sciences Div.; Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Center for the Study of Writing, Berkeley, CA.; Center for the Study of Writing, Pittsburgh, PA.