ERIC Number: ED313697
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1989-Jul
Reference Count: N/A
Classroom Contexts and Literacy Development: How Writing Systems Shape the Teaching and Learning of Composition. Technical Report No. 476.
Michaels, Sarah; Bruce, Bertram
This report argues for and illustrates an approach to the study of writing in school settings that integrates ethnographic analysis of classroom interaction with linguistic analysis of written texts and teacher/student conversational exchanges. The report explores the relationships among classroom contexts, computer-based innovations, writing practices, and actual written texts--based on long term participant observation in two urban, sixth-grade classrooms, over a 2-year period. The first two sections define the construct of a classroom writing system and discuss both the outside forces on the classrooms and the particular patterns of social organization that pre-dated the introduction of computer technology. The third section focuses on the function and use of the computer with QUILL software within each classroom writing system; the fourth section discusses the importance of teacher expectations in shaping student writing by using a case study to trace the development over time of a single composition, from first to final draft. The final section examines the conflicting purposes at work within a classroom writing system and the demands that those conflicting purposes put on both teachers and students in carrying out sensible writing and response in classroom encounters. The report concludes by discussing the interrelated implications that a writing systems approach has for equity, writing instruction, evaluation of innovations, and teacher education. Ten figures and four tables of data are included; 57 references and one appendix about the Quill software tools are attached. (KEH)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Guides - Non-Classroom
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Spencer Foundation, Chicago, IL.; Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Illinois Univ., Urbana. Center for the Study of Reading.; Bolt, Beranek and Newman, Inc., Cambridge, MA.