ERIC Number: ED312084
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1986
Reference Count: N/A
Low-Cost Primary Education: Implementing an Innovation in Six Nations.
Cummings, William K.
The concept of Instructional Management by Parents, Community, and Teachers (IMPACT) was developed by the Regional Centre for Educational Innovation and Technology (INNOTECH) of the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization (SEAMEO) in an effort to reverse trends toward increased costs and decreased student achievement in schooling in developing countries. In Southeast Asia, educators proposed to replace conventional educational components with programed instruction and learning, student and community volunteers, and instructional supervisors. In the comprehensive overview provided in this document, the history of the concept is examined by means of case studies of the implementation of the Philippines' IMPACT, Indonesia's PAMONG, Malaysia's InSPIRE, Jamaica's PRIMER, Liberia's IEL, and Bangladesh's IMPACT projects. National differences in degree of diffusion were shown to be related to the soundness of arguments presented on IMPACT's behalf, project organization, readiness for reform of the educational bureaucracy, consistency of leadership, and identification of an educational need that IMPACT could fill better than other groups. The document also traces the role of international organizations and associated individuals in promoting IMPACT, reviews related research, identifies site differences affecting implementation, and discusses 26 lessons derived from the case studies. References include 100 citations. (RH)
Descriptors: Case Studies, Comparative Analysis, Cost Effectiveness, Delivery Systems, Developing Nations, Educational History, Educational Innovation, Foreign Countries, Primary Education, Program Implementation, Programed Instruction
International Development Research Centre, P.O. Box 8500, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1G 3H9 ($12.00 Canadian).
Publication Type: Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: International Development Research Centre, Ottawa (Ontario).
Identifiers - Location: Bangladesh; Indonesia; Jamaica; Liberia; Malaysia; Philippines