ERIC Number: ED311535
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1986
Reference Count: N/A
A Review and Analysis of Performance Appraisal Processes, Volume 1. A Review of the Literature. Professionalism in Schools Series.
Ondrack, D. A.; Oliver, C.
The first of three volumes, this report consists of a review of the literature on performance appraisal with special attention to the literature on certificated personnel in public education systems in the United States and Canada. The literature review shows that there are two predominant approaches to conducting performance appraisals and two main uses. Approaches focus on the "process" and "outputs" of professional work. Uses are "formative" and "summative." In "formative" uses, appraisal information is used for recognition, guidance, coaching, development, or problem correction. In "summative" uses, appraisal information is used for administrative decisions on personnel. These approaches to, and uses of performance appraisal are not mutually exclusive, and various combinations can be found in many systems. A major theme that emerged was the growing emphasis on protection of employee rights legislation and the vulnerability of employers to lawsuits arising from contentious personnel decisions based on performance appraisals. These trends have led to considerable effort to improve the reliability and validity of appraisal systems, but have also led to increased bureaucratization of procedures. (JAM)
Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education, Evaluation Criteria, Evaluation Methods, Evaluation Utilization, Foreign Countries, Formative Evaluation, Personnel Evaluation, School Personnel, Summative Evaluation
Publications Sales, The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, 252 Bloor Street West, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1V6.
Publication Type: Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto.
Identifiers - Location: Canada