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ERIC Number: ED311308
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1989-Oct-3
Pages: 35
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: N/A
Trends and Issues in International Agricultural Extension: The End of the Beginning.
Rivera, William M.
This paper examines trends and issues in international agricultural extension and offers seven reasons for the establishment of extension systems after World War II. It makes the case that, although the general situation is somewhat similar today, three current developments color and shape extension and may cause its demise: (1) institutional attack of public extension over its cost and financing; (2) controversy over which system model of extension is preferable; and (3) disagreements over what lessons have been learned from the extension literature. Re-examination of the three developments reveals several basic truths: (1) every situation is different; (2) extension models must be considered with respect to the specific situation; (3) economic sustainability is a primary consideration in program/project development; and (4) extension systems must be flexible and change with changing policies, technologies, and the needs of farmers. The implications of these developments for the U.S. Cooperative Extension Service are that (1) domestic experience is both valuable and limited; (2) it needs to know more about other extension systems and their strengths and weaknesses; (3) there is no one best system/model; (4) in principle extension is flexible, but procedures are needed to ensure that its organization evolves along with changes in its target audiences and technologies; (5) the costs and financing of public extension are paramount concerns; (6) economic sustainability is a main consideration in program/project development; and (7) it is time to stop ignoring the U.S. organizational experience. (Included are a 25-item reference list and an appendix of Project Performance Factors.) (NLL)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A