ERIC Number: ED310962
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1987
Teaching Thinking Skills: Social Studies. Building Students' Thinking Skills Series.
Critical or creative thinking is simply thinking of a higher order by persons informed by fact and logic, insight and empathy. It is necessary for problem solving, invention, and achievement. Every child has the ability to be a thinker. Thinking is an act and, as such, improves with practice. The curriculum and the teacher can help student thinking in several ways: (1) The teacher can set up projects that require thoughtful planning and execution. (2) Encouragement can be offered by the teacher when children try to exercise their mental powers. (3) Students can be given constructive feedback--the classroom should be an arena in which students are active and dialogue takes place. (4) Quantitative results can be downplayed without neglecting standards. (5) A key word should be cooperation--students should see themselves, not others, as the primary competitor. A brief review of the literature is provided, followed by a discussion of the kind of classroom environment that promotes thinking. The document then describes the social studies curriculum grade by grade and discusses, using concrete examples, how critical thinking can be integrated into the learning process. A 28-item bibliography is included. (JB)
Descriptors: Classroom Techniques, Creative Thinking, Critical Thinking, Educational Strategies, Elementary Secondary Education, Logical Thinking, Problem Solving, Social Studies, Teaching Methods
National Education Association Professional Library, P.O. Box 509, West Haven, CT (Stock No. 0680-1).
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Guides - Non-Classroom
Education Level: N/A
Audience: Teachers; Practitioners
Authoring Institution: National Education Association, Washington, DC.