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ERIC Number: ED308134
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1989
Pages: 6
Abstractor: N/A
Religious Compromise in Israeli Schools since 1953.
Parker, Franklin
Jewish schools, before statehood in 1948, were run by political parties. The "General Stream" (1913), formed by the General Zionist and Revisionist parties, agreed to have secular subjects taught in European-like schools, and to forego formal religious instruction. The "Religious Stream" (1920), formed by Zionist religious parties, focused on religious and Zionist emphases in its schools. The "Labor Stream" (1926) arose mainly among rural and urban workers, and was imbued with child-centered educational ideals. These three school systems were joined by a fourth group, the "Ultra-Orthodox Agudat Israel Stream" (1948), led by the most religiously demanding group of zealots. A religious and political compromise in 1953, which placed all schools under a Ministry of Education and Culture, is the basis for the five kinds of schools currently operating. State Secular schools enroll 65% of Jewish youths and are considered to be religiously neutral. State Religious schools enroll 25% of Jewish youths, teach the "Bible" as the Word of God, and emphasize the religious nature of holy days. Ultra-Orthodox schools enroll 6.5% of Jewish youths, are extremely religious, require "Bible" study, and are governed by religion in all aspects of life. Kibutz, moshav, and other types of communal settlement schools, together with army-run schools, enroll 3.5% of Jewish youths, have varied religious emphases, and usually observe the Sabbath and other holy days. Arab schools enroll about 200,000 Israeli Arab youths. They are separated from Jewish schools, not by law, but by cultural, linguistic, geographical, and religious differences. Some results of the 1953 compromise are discussed. (GEA)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Historical Materials
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Israel
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A