ERIC Number: ED308058
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1989-Mar
Reference Count: N/A
The Impact of Rural Industries on the Outcomes of Schooling in Rural America. ERIC Digest.
Howley, Craig B.
The traditional relationships between rural and urban areas and the changes brought on by specialized rural industries discussed. The digest reviews work that has investigated the impact of farming, manufacturing, and mining on education. The effect of agricultural activity on academic achievement, especially via vocational agriculture programs, has attracted considerable interest. At least one study (Hobbs, 1987) credits vocational agriculture with developing leadership and entrepreneurial skills among students, suggesting a positive effect of a farming economy on school outcomes. Researchers also report that agriculture offers students the opportunity for part-time work, which seems to have a positive effect on grades (Charner & Fraser, 1988). Part-time farming jobs do not, however, appear to influence students' educational aspirations. The farm crisis of the 1980's may bring significant economic changes in agriculture and subsequent effects on school outcomes. Studies of the Relationship between the growth of manufacturing and school outcomes show mixed results, with at least one study (Rosenfeld, Bergman, & Rubin, 1985) associating a net loss in manufacturing jobs with an increase in educational attainment (years in school). The evidence, however, is hardly conclusive. Studies of student achievement in mining-dependent counties in Appalachia show significant differences between Appalachian and non-Appalachian areas. Although more study is needed, data (Bagby et al., 1985; DeYoung, 1985) suggest that mining economies exert a negative influence on student achievement. It is suggested that more study is necessary to better understand the relationships between education and economic development. This digest includes 10 references. (TES)
Descriptors: Agricultural Production, Economic Development, Education Work Relationship, Educational Trends, Elementary Secondary Education, Manufacturing Industry, Mining, Rural Areas, Rural Education, Rural Urban Differences, Socioeconomic Influences
ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, Appalachia Educational Laboratory, Inc., P.O. Box 1348, Charleston, WV 25325 (free).
Publication Type: ERIC Publications; ERIC Digests in Full Text
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, Charleston, WV.