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ERIC Number: ED307278
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1989-Mar
Pages: 16
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
Determination of Validity and Bias in the Use of GPA and MCAT in the Selection of Medical School Students.
Vancouver, Jeffrey B.; And Others
The ability of the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) and undergraduate grade point average (GPA) to predict success in medical school was studied, and two complementary methods of determining if the tests are biased against ethnic groups were examined. Data from 497 majority and 82 minority medical students at the College of Human Medicine at Michigan State University (East Lansing) over a 6-year period were used to test for predictive validity and differential prediction. Majority status was defined as all other groups except Black, Mexican American, Mainland Puerto Rican, and Native American. The National Board of Medical Examiners Part I (NBME-I) examination was used as a measure of student performance in medical school. Science GPA and a composite MCAT score (the biology, chemistry, physics, reading, and quantitative subtests) were evaluated as predictors. Moderated multiple regression and the Cleary model (Cleary, 1968) were used to determine whether test bias was present in science GPA or MCAT scores. The interaction of ethnicity with the predictors was also evaluated. Both the science GPA and the composite MCAT scores were valid and predictive of success in medical school as measured by the NBME-I. Both were equally valid for minority and majority groups. There were significant mean differences between the groups, but ethnicity did not affect the meaning of the scores in terms of predicting success on the NBME-I. Moderated multiple regression was the more sensitive measure of differential validity; the Cleary model can confirm results of a moderated multiple regression equation. (SLD)
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Medical College Admission Test